Victims suffered from bleeding ears and noses whilst oxygen masks fell down.
They are currently being treated at Mumbai airport.
The aircraft was a Jet Airways flight travelling between Mumbai and Jaipur.
As the plane climbed, the cabin rapidly started losing pressure, forcing the plane to turn back, and some passengers were injured.
A statement explaining what happened was released by Lalit Gupta from the Directorate General of Civil Aviation, which is responsible for commercial flight over India.
It said: “The 697 Mumbai-Jaipur flight was turned back to Mumbai after take off as, during the climb, crew forgot to select switch to maintain cabin pressure.
“This resulted in the oxygen masks dropping.
“Thirty out of 166 passengers experienced nose and ear bleeding.
“Some also complained of headache.”
Darshak Hathi, who was on the plane, posted a 45 second video showing passengers wearing oxygen masks on Twitter.
He added: “Panic situation due to technical fault in Jet Airways 9W 0697 going from Mumbai to Jaipur.
“Flight return to Mumbai after 45 minutes.
“All passengers are safe including me.”
Jet Airways is a major Indian airliner based out of Mumbai.
In October 2017 it was the second-largest airliner in India with a 17.8 percent share of the passenger market.